A QUICK REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGY
♣ SHOW NOTES:
NCLEX REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGY
The fact is that pharmacology will always be a big part in your NCLEX Exam, and can be a huge catalyst in whether you pass or fail your NCLEX Exam. It is quite important for us to focus a lot on the CONTENTthat pertains to medications, if we are reviewing for the NCLEX. The NCSBN (who is responsible for developing the NCLEX Exam) defines the category of PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PARENTERAL THERAPIES as a sub-category within the PHYSIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY area (of the exam) in which the nurse is basically providing care related to the administration of medications and parenteral therapies.
To be more specific, Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapy has contents that includes but is not limited to:
- ADVERSE EFFECTS/CONTRAINDICATIONS/SIDE EFFECTS/INTERACTIONS
- EXPECTED ACTIONS/OUTCOMES
- MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION
- BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS
- PARENTERAL/INTRAVENOUS THERAPIES
- CENTRAL VENOUS ACCESS DEVICES
- PHARMACOLOGICAL PAIN MANAGEMENT
- DOSAGE CALCULATION
First, I want to take a step back and look at Pharmacology from a technical sense and look at it more in depth.
What is Pharmacology?
PHARMACOKINETICS– The study if how drugs are being absorbed, distribuited, metabolized and excreted by the body.
PHARMACODYNAMICS– is the study of how drugs are being used by the body.
PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS– the study of how the client responds to the particular drugs.
WHAT’S IN A DRUG NAME?
This tells you the chemical makeup of the drug.
This name is given by the company that developed the drug.
This is the name given to the drug by the company in which the medication originated.
THE SEVEN RIGHTS OF ADMINISTERING DRUGS
- RIGHT CLIENT
- RIGHT ROUTE
- RIGHT DRUG
- RIGHT DOSE
- RIGHT AMOUNT
- RIGHT TIME
- RIGHT DOCUMENTATION
- RIGHT TO REFUSE TREATMENT
Any drug can have a CHEMICAL NAME, A GENERIC NAME AND A BRAND OR TRADE NAME.
- THE GENERIC NAME OF A DRUG IS SUGGESTED BY THE MANUFACTURER, AND ACCEPTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE.
- HOW THE DRUG IS BEING AFFECTED AFFECTS THE BODY AND THE PATIENT’S RESPONSE IS CALLED THE EFFECT.
- EFFICACY REFERS TO THE DEGREE TO WHICH A DRUG IS ABLE TO INDUCE IT’S MAXIMAL EFFECTS.
- ADVERSE EFFECT IS ANY UNEXPECTED OR UNINTENDED RESPONSE TO A THERAPEUTIC USE OF A DRUG, IT IS ALSO CALLED SIDE EFFECT.
During this review, I want to focus specifically towards the drugs that is mostly in patients with hypertension.
DRUGS USED WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM
♣ Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:
- – HELPS GET RID OF THE SODIUM AND FLUID IN THE BODY.
- – USED TO LOWER THE BLOOD PRESSURE.
– PROMOTES THE EXCRETION OF SODIUM AND WATER
– DIURETICS INTERFERES WITH THE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN THE KIDNEY.
– INCREASES THE URINE OUTPUT. DECREASES THE PRELOAD AND AFTERLOAD..
If the patients blood pressure drop to low, it is important to give IV FLUIDS to pt.
LETS GO OVER THE CATEGORIES OF DIURETICS ♠
♦ TYPES OF DIURETICS
♣ POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS
It promotes the excretion of soduium and water, while the retention of pottasium
- SPIRONOLACTON (ALDACTONE)
- AMILORIDE (MIDAMOR)
Now lets go to the SIDE EFFECTS:
First, of course the person can have too much potassium or HYPERKALEMIA:
Signs of HYPERKALEMIA
- IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
- TINGLING IN HANDS AND FEET
- SHORTNESS OF BREATH
- TIREDNESS OR WEAKNESS
OTHER SIDE EFFECTS:
- NAUSEA AND VOMITING
- CRAMPING AND DIARRHEA
- DIZZINESS & HEADACHE
- BUMETANIDE (BUMEX)
- FUROSEMIDE (LASIX)
- THIZADE DIURETICS
CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF SODIUM AND WATER.
♣ CAN INDUCE HYPERGLYCEMIA
VERY IMPORTANT FOR THE NCLEX:
◊ SIDE EFFECTS OF DIURETICS
- FREQUENT URINATION
- ELECTROLYTE ABNORMALITIE
- MUSCLE CRAMPS OR WEAKNESS
- BLURRED VISION
- INCREASED PERSPIRATION (SWEATING)
BETA (ADRENERGIC) BLOCKERS
– Helps lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.
– Can be used to treat headaches.
– Can be used to treat glacauma and prevent myocardial infarctions.
– Acts on the system, by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.
For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).
- ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
- NAUSEA AND VOMITING
NOTE: Some of the symptoms may MASK signs of Hypoglycemia
♠ HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS
NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:
Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker. Monitor the client for signs of edema. The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi. When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome. Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever. It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.
♣ CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
- – PREVENTS THE MOVEMENT MECHANISM OF CALCIUM WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM.
- – THEREFORE DECREASING THE CARDIAC WORKLOAD, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTILIY.
- – MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “DIPINE” : DILITAZEM (CARDIZEM), AMLOPIDINE (NORVASC), NEFEDIPINE, NICARDIPINE.
- – USED TO TREAT ANGINA.
– Blocks the calcium channels in the heart, causing a decrease in contractility.
Decreases the workload of the heart.
- NIFEDIPINE (PROCARDIA)
- AMPLODIPINE (NORVASC)
- DO NOT GIVE NORVASC WITH GRAPEFRUIT, CAUSEES INCREASE IN DRUG LEVEL.
- VERAPAMIL (ISOPTIN)
- DILTIAZEM (CARDIZEM)
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
- MAKE SURE TO MONITOR THE HEART RATE AND THE BLOOD PRESSURE.
- HOLD MEDICATION IF HR IS LESS THAN 60 OR IF BP IS LESS THAN BP.
♠ ACE INHIBITOR
- – ACE INHIBITORS “BLOCKS” THE CONVERSION OF ANGIOTENSIN 1 TO ANGIOTENSIN 2.
- – ALTERS THE “BLOOD PRESSURE” MECHANISM THROUGH THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
- MEDICATIONS INCLUDES THE “PRIL” : CATOPRIL, ENALAPRIL, LISINOPRIL, RAMIPRIL.
- NAUSEA AND VOMITING.
GIVE ON AN EMPTY STOMACH OR 2-3 HRS. AFTER A MEAL.
Welcome to this NCLEX Quick E Course: There is only ONE GOAL with this course, and that is to pass the NCLEX. You have made it this far, you have graduated Nursing School. You basically have learned, in some way or another the content and essential knowledge necessary to pass the NCLEX exam. With the help of this course, it will now depend on how you are able to apply this knowledge and strategies towards the NCLEX.
Before starting this Quick E Course, I will require 3 essential qualities that you have from within:
The Three C’s includes:
Confidence: Confident that you are going to pass the NCLEX Exam.
Commitment: Committed in doing everything, to pass this Exam.
Concentration: Focus and Concentration throughout this review.
This COURSE will INCLUDE… ♣
The Quick E Course Test Taking Strategies Maslow's Hierarchy The Nursing Process Lab Values (Important) Intravenous Fluids Electrolyte Values NCLEX Review on Medication (IMPORTANT) The Cardiac System The Neuro System The Respiratory System The G.I. System The G.U. System The Endocrine System The Integumentry System The Hematologic System The Musculoskeletal System Eye and Ear Disorders Infection Control Management and Delegation Types of Dysrhytmias Pharmacology Drug Classifications & Adverse Reactions. Classification and Side Effects The Antidote for certain Drugs. Vitamins and Mineral Cardiac Pharmacology Cardiovascular Drugs (Simplified) Cardiac Glycosides Antidysrhytmics Anticoagulants Diuretics Thrombolytics Cardiac Stimulants Central Nervous System Pharm. CNS Stimulants Anticonvulsants Barbituates Benzodiazepines Succinimides Antiparkinsonians Antimyasthenic (Cholinergics) Opioid Analgesics Opioid Antagonists Antiseizure Medication Respiratory Pharmacology Bronchodilators Mucolytic Agents and Expectorants Antihistamine Antitussives G.I. System Pharmacology GI Drugs Antacids Anticholinergics Antiemetics Antidiarrheals Cathartics/Laxatives G.U. System Pharmacology Spasmolytics Urinary Anti-infectives Pharmacology Review A basic review of pharmacology Overview of diff. type of Antibiotics Adrenegic Antagonist Drugs Parasympathetic Nervous System Hematological Disorders Antiplatelets Anticoagluants Autonomic Nervous System Adrenergic Drugs Cholinergic Agents Anticholinergics Antiparkinsonian Agents Beta Adrenergic Blockers Anti-infectives Aminoglycosides Maternity and Pediatrics Maternal Assessment Signs of Pregnancy Complications of Pregnancy 1st, 2nd & 3rd Trimester Pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy Placenta Previa Preeclamsia Caring for the Maternal Client Signs of Pregnancy Newborn and Pediatrics Care of the Newborn Growth & Development Cardiovascular Disorders Respiratory Disorders Neurological Disorders Gastrointestinal Disorders Pediatrics: An NCLEX Review Psychiatric Disorders Psychotic Disorders Substance Abuse Drug Use
All the Instructions to ACCESS the COURSE will be sent through your email.
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